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With maturing basins and ever deeper and more complex frontiers, the importance of extending the life of and maximizing recovery from producing fields has never been greater. CGG has been at the forefront of the evolution of 4D technology and has unrivalled experience in its practical application.

4D seismic has evolved from a qualitative tool to identify producing zones and bypassed oil, to become an integral part of quantitative reservoir management. As we try to understand the workings of a diverse range of reservoirs in more detail we need a correspondingly diverse and specialized set of expertise and techniques to resolve them. Whether it relates to a High-Pressure, High-Temperature (HPHT) reservoir or a shallow heavy oil project, CGG has the people, the technology and the experience to understand a field, whatever its challenges.

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The Value of 4D

4D seismic is now a well-established technique which is making a valuable contribution to the production and development of hydrocarbons around the world. As the technique has matured with the development of expertise and technology there has been an evolution in its use.

Originally the accuracy of the technique limited it to being a qualitative indicator of production effects. Even at this stage 4D seismic delivered tremendous value in terms of interpretation of internal reservoir structure and the identification of depleted and unswept zones as the Girassol example illustrates.

Advances in technology, especially 4D processing, have allowed us to produce more precise 4D seismic differences and transform these into the context of reservoir engineering. With proper calibration and petrophysically constrained inversion techniques we are now able to derive quantitative estimates of changes in reservoir properties such as fluid saturation and pressure. This is illustrated by the Brage field example. This evolution in the role of 4D seismic from a qualitative tool to a powerful quantitative technique represents a significant step-change in the value of 4D. It also indicates a shift from a purely geophysical interpretation tool to a reservoir management tool, which can be used to assess remaining hydrocarbon volumes and optimize the recovery strategy.

Integrated Feasibility Studies

There are two main motivations for conducting a 4D feasibility study: First, to assess whether the 4D signal generated by production effects in the reservoir is detectable. Second, to optimize the design of the 4D survey and optimize the best timing for further surveys. The first part takes the form of a rock physics feasibility analysis where the effect of different production scenarios on the reservoir and resulting seismic properties are quantified. Rock physics modeling can also have a useful role in helping to interpret the observed 4D seismic response.

After confirming that the reservoir will give a suitable response for 4D seismic monitoring, survey design can begin. This second stage aims to maximize the strength of the observed 4D signal by optimizing reservoir illumination and maximizing repeatability of successive surveys. With the use of synthetic data from the rock physics modeling, processing challenges can also be anticipated. CGG is able to provide both the breadth of expertise and the experience necessary to ensure any 4D feasibility study is a powerful and integrated tool. In order to perform an effective and comprehensive planning operation, expertise in many areas is required including acquisition systems, reservoir modeling, petrophysics, data processing and analysis; CGG is proud of its history of excellence throughout these disciplines.

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Planning and Simulation

  • Quantify a survey's ability to fulfill its objectives
  • Maximize the value of legacy data
  • Enable contingency planning
  • Design integration with complementary technologies (e.g. VSP, passive seismic monitoring, Controlled Source EM).
  • Within the planning, various tools can be used including:

    • Flow simulation modeling
    • Fluid substitution modeling with calibration to existing well data
    • Elastic model generation for all survey vintages
    • Synthetic seismic data generation and processing
    • 4D sensitivity to varying levels of noise and repeatability errors
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4D Petrophysical Seismic Inversion: case stud...

Thierry Coleou | Audrey Roustiau
©2013 EAGE

4D seismic inversions

Lucia Levato

4D Seismic Inversion on Continuous Land Seism...

Laurène Michou | Thierry Coléou | Yves Lafet
©2013 EAGE
GeoConsulting - Reservoir Petrophysics

Reservoir Petrophysics

We link elastic and petrophysics properties to extract more value from seismic volumes.

GeoConsulting - Monitoring Solutions

Monitoring Solutions

As a leader in reservoir monitoring technology and methods, we can design, acquire, process and interpret a fully-integrated 4D program from inception to completion.

Onshore - SeisMovie

SeisMovie

Optimize enhanced oil recovery. Continuous, high-resolution onshore monitoring. Unparalleled sensitivity and repeatability. Remote autonomous operation. Understand reservoir dynamics.

GeoConsulting - Geophysical Services (SRC)

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