Pro4D

Pro4D provides the needed tools for any timelapse study. The aim is to track production-related changes in the reservoir and determine areas of bypassed reserves or inefficient production. Pro4D’s complete suite of tools can model a whole range of anticipated reservoir scenarios, both at log and synthetic seismic scale in terms of temperature, pressure and fluid saturations.

Pro4D Workflow

Timelapse Modeling and Interpretation

Rock Physics & Synthetic Modeling

Rock Physics & Synthetic Modeling is the first stage in a timelapse study. Use rock physics relationships to bridge between the primary reservoir properties and the seismic response. Use Pro4D’s Systematic Changes Modeling to create a range of log and synthetic responses to predict how the seismic data will be affected by changes in fluid saturation, pressure and temperature. Compare these computed 2D or 3D synthetic volumes, with their modeled production effects, to “base” models and create modeled difference volumes to compare to the actual seismic data.

Pro4D Figure 2

Timelapse Volume Calibration

Timelapse volume calibration removes non-production-related differences from the monitor seismic volumes. Pro4D has comprehensive survey calibration features that match the phase, frequency, amplitude and event times of base and monitor surveys in areas where production has not occurred.  Sequence Processing applies these (and other) processes to the data in one pass, significantly improving project efficiency.  Typically, you would assess the quality of the seismic match after each processing stage using Pro4D tools such as Volume Cross Correlation, Predictability, NRMS Difference Volumes and Volume Crossplot.

Timelapse Interpretation

Timelapse interpretation can be applied to both time delays and amplitude differences between base and monitor surveys as these tell us different things about reservoir changes. Use volumes of amplitude ratios, cross-correlation coefficients and time shifts to define the extent of production effects. Amplitude differences in the reservoir interval between vintages highlight reflectivity changes caused by the production process. Relate all these differences back to the synthetic models.

Key to time-lapse volume interpretation is the comparison of seismic attributes along horizons to characterize the reservoir interval. Pro4D includes advanced horizon management and manipulation functions which simplify the use of related horizons from multiple vintages of surveys or attribute volumes.


Pro4D Volumetrics

Volumetrics

The Volumetrics functions in Pro4D provide advanced capabilities for comparing time-lapse anomalies to production and injection data at their associated wells, helping to address the common challenge of time-lapse interpretation: the non-uniqueness of the 4D response. Pro4D simplifies the comparison of time-lapse attribute maps to pressure and situation distribution as estimated through reservoir simulation.

Comparing the volumes of the time-lapse anomalies to the known production changes to saturation can greatly reduce uncertainty in the interpretation.


Pro4D Figure 1

Pro4D Benefits

  • Enhanced data management tools ideal for handling multiple time-lapse seismic surveys and corresponding horizons
  • Calibrates time-lapse surveys to remove data collection differences
  • Generates a wide range of time-lapse attributes.
  • Advanced volumetric analysis tool
  • Uses modeling options based on the Fluid Replacement Modeling tool, using Biot-Gasmann and Batzle-Wang approaches.
  • Estimates S-wave logs through the Castagna, Greenberg-Castagna, Xu-White or Gregory methods.
  • Uses the Taylor Expansion method to compute time-varying time shifts.
  • Offers multi-threaded capability to QC and calibrate time-lapse volumes, significantly reducing run-times.
Pro4D Figure 3

Features

  • Model rock physics for temperature, pressure, saturation, GOR and reservoir thicknesses changes.
  • Model pressure for rock framework and reservoir fluids.
  • Model 3-phase fluids, including an option for CO2.
  • Calculate fluid properties using advanced FLAG consortium or Batzle-Wang methods, with bubble-point calculations using either the Standing or Butler equations.
  • Use mixed mineralogy plus either homogeneous or patchy saturations with Voigt or Brie Averages with an enhanced Biot-Gassmann implementation.
  • Estimate S-wave with the Xu-White, Gregory, Greenberg-Castagna or Castagna methods.
  • Model the medium using the Reuss, Hill or Hashin-Shtrikman averaging, with a Kuster-Toksoz pore geometry effect option.
  • Generate pre- and post-stack synthetics for a range of reservoir and geometry scenarios.
  • Perform time-lapse seismic volume cross-correlations and cross plots and use a differencing tool for volume comparisons.
  • Match volumes in terms of amplitude, phase and time, including shaping filter, time & phase matching, time-varying time shifts and amplitude cross-normalization.
  • Compute seismic attributes on base, monitor and difference volumes.
  • Use volumetric analysis to compare time-lapse anomalies to production and injection data at a well.

Comparison of Volumes

Pro4D Figure 5 Pro4D Figure 6
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