CGG, in conjunction with Spectrum and the National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia (NAMCOR), acquired a modern 2D seismic survey in the deep offshore area of the Orange Basin. It comprises more than 8,000 km of long-offset data covering both held and open blocks.
This survey complements and ties into the previously existing data in the basin to provide comprehensive coverage of the area, allowing more confident evaluation of new and existing plays in the area. The Orange Basin is a highly underexplored area off south-west Africa that includes the giant Kudu gas field (at least 1.4 Tcf of gas reserves) and several gas and condensate discoveries in South African waters to the south. Further seaward of Kudu there has been no exploration drilling and none of the existing seismic surveys extend out into the toe thrust zone of the collapsed delta front. The geological setting observed on the new seismic data shows similarities to the recent giant gas discoveries offshore East Africa.
A series of large Mesozoic sedimentary depocenters lie off the South African and Namibian coast, the most southern of which is the Orange Basin. The formation of these basins is associated with South Atlantic rifting which was initiated towards the end of the Jurassic period. The basin has a proven hydrocarbon system as demonstrated by the Kudu Gas Field.
There is the potential for source rocks to be present within pre-rift Karoo-age deposits and this unit is an exploration target due to the likely presence of sand-rich facies and tilted fault block traps developed during rifting (1).
Subsequent syn-rift deposition is characterized by terrestrial coastal shallow marine deposits; there is both source and reservoir potential within these facies and associated structural closures (2).
The transitional phase that followed rifting contains Aeolian sandstones and volcaniclastic sediments. These sandstones form the reservoir for the Kudu Field which is a structural/stratigraphic trap with proven reserves of 1.4TCF (3).
Deposition of Barremian and Lower Aptian shales under poorly oxygenated conditions provide a regional source rock interval within the basin (4). The shales are wet gas to oil-prone and also act as a regional seal. The Mid Aptian unconformity marks a change to more oxygenated conditions and poorer source potential.
Sedimentation increased dramatically in the Late Cretaceous and also led to the collapse of a Late Cretaceous delta and the mass transport of material downslope. Closures at this level (5) could be sourced from Cenomanian-Turonian shales (6).
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