Source Solutions

All seismic imaging begins with the release of acoustic energy into the water, continues with the propagation of this energy through the subsurface and finishes with the harvesting of encoded messages from the reservoir. To get the required response from the reservoir you have to start with the right sound, at the right level and from the right angle.

The image of the subsurface and the attributes of the reservoir have to be de-correlated from any imprint of the acquisition system. CGG has done extensive work to eliminate the echo of the water surface from the image and attributes. Our advanced deghosting technologies from acquisition to processing demonstrate the expected efficiency and accuracy on both the source and receiver sides of the Marine Acquisition System.

clustered sub-array

Full Source Characterization

However, our ambition is to improve the image resolution. The reality of acquisition reveals the marine source to be continuously moving. From a distance it appears as a single dot, quiet and static, but from close-up and shallow any element of the 250m2 source array structure can be distinguished. Removing the illumination imprint of this structure requires an accurate estimation of the seismic signature of each element at its real location.

Full Source Characterization technology enables the estimation of the source signature produced by each single element for any direction (azimuth) at any distance (offset) and for each single shot. A full acquisition system scrutinizes the sound propagation of each source element at near field, mid-field and far-field and dedicated real-time software performs joint inversion of those measurements. The complexity of the generated wavefield is revealed: the activated bubbles, their interactions, and their reflection from the sea surface. The contribution of each element at any location and any depth can be identified. Now the removal of the imprint of the marine source system from the images and attributes of the subsurface regardless of depth becomes possible:

  • 3D source deghosting and designature, critical for shallow targets, accurately performs 3D receiver deghosting  
  • 3D deghosting and designature of BroadSource accurately releases the images and attributes from the bubble imprint on Low Frequencies
  • Monitoring of stability of the source signal for all azimuths and offsets enables the areas where shot to shot deconvolution is recommended to be highlighted
  • The expectations of 4D source repeatability are very high. Any source imprint, even on some azimuths or offsets, reduces the detectability threshold for the 4D signature. With Full Source Characterization technology, CGG moves forward, in combination with 4D illumination monitoring, to set the assessment of repeatability beyond the geometrical repeatability of source/receiver positions.
source deployment2

Going deeper into resolution is not based only on better engineering of Marine Sources. Understanding the expectations of our clients helps us to define the right strategy.

Knowing the talent and high standards of our processing experts and technology, allows us to design the right sensing of our sources to feed the right measurements to the inversion algorithms and so open the door to leading edge resolution solutions.

By distributing sources with depth, we remove the imprint of sea surface interference (ghosts) with BroadSource. By measuring each single element of the source, we remove the imprint of the size of the source array (Full Source Characterization)

Increasing the density of the sources in space and time allows us to prepare the ground for more efficiency and accuracy through Simultaneous Source technology . Continuous recording is a reality today and enables us to be prepared for the continuous generation of acoustic sound through Marine Vibrators tomorrow.

CGG Marine technology has a clear vision of the road ahead and providing solutions to client challenges is our motivation!

 

Monitoring of air-gun source signature direct...

Cheikh Niang | Yuan Ni | Julie Svay
©2013 SEG

Synchronized multi-level source, a robust bro...

Risto Siliqi | Thierry Payen | Ronan Sablon
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New technology breathes new life into mature ...

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©2015 Gulf Publishing Company
Offshore - BroadSource

BroadSource

A fully proven broadband source, compatible with all receiver deghosting technology for ghost-free broadband data.
Offshore - FSC

Full Source Characterization

Full characterization of the source signature, monitored in near real time to enable the most accurate designature.
Offshore - GeoHazards

Solutions for Geohazards

Clear, high-resolution near-surface images to delineate the smallest structures. Over 6 octaves of data from BroadSource for shallow hazard identification.
Offshore - Customer Challenges

Customer Challenges in Marine Acquisition

A full range of integrated marine acquisition solutions to increase accuracy and resolution, enhance illumination in complex geologies and all as fast as possible.
Offshore - BroadSource & BroadSeis

BroadSource & BroadSeis

Get the widest bandwidth and highest frequencies from ghost-free wavelets without compromising low frequencies. Available in flip-flop mode across the fleet.
Offshore - Multi-Source

Multi-Source

Add an extra source to increase efficiency without compromising quality, or to increase resolution without increasing acquisition turnaround time.
Offshore (Marine)

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