Geologic environments with fracture systems developed in different directions exhibit orthorhombic symmetry. Tilted bedding is a potential further complication, giving rise to tilted orthorhombic symmetry. In such a system, simple polar anisotropy such as VTI or TTI is insufficient to describe the seismic wave properties.
Orthorhombic RTM from CGG is the answer to such a problem. This uses a second order wave equation, stabilized by additional constraints on the Thomsen parameters. It yields flat gathers across all azimuths to provide high quality RTM images of complex structures in areas with multiple fracture orientations.
In this example from the Perdido fold belt in the Gulf of Mexico, gathers using TTI tomography
display inconsistent curvature across different azimuths. An orthorhombic velocity model resolves this, giving flatter gathers and hence a better final stack.
Create accurate seismic images in the most complex of geological environments.
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