Even with wide- or full-azimuth configurations, complex geology can be a challenge to image due to limitations in surface acquisition. Complex geology can scatter surface wavefields and prevent proper illumination of the events below, regardless of the imaging algorithm. The resulting images suffer from noise and migration artifacts that contaminate the data and make interpretation difficult.
The solution is Vector Offset Output (VOO)"
VOO RTM is a means to divide the RTM output of each shot into a number of tiles - each tile corresponding to a different vector output range as measured from the shot location. The division of output differentiates the vectors contributing signal from the vectors contributing noise. An optimized VOO stack combines only the illuminating outputs, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio, significantly improving image quality and thus aiding interpretation.
A benefit of VOO is that it permits the usage of a Deconvolution Imaging Condition (DIC) to recover accurate seismic amplitudes and boost weak signal amplitudes in poorly illuminated areas but without boosting noise amplitudes.
On this example from the Gulf of Mexico, the VOO stack (center) is less noisy and shows enhanced imaging of the salt flanks, compared to a conventional stack (left), while the VOO+DIC stack (right) shows further improved event continuity.
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