Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI) derives high-resolution velocity models by minimizing the difference between observed and
modeled seismic waveforms. It goes beyond refraction and reflection tomography techniques, which use only the travel time
kinematics of the seismic data, by using additional information provided by the amplitude and phase of the seismic waveform.
The highly detailed models provided by FWI can be used to resolve complex geological features, as well as aid in identifying
potential geohazards. These high-definition models can also be input directly to pore pressure prediction flows, time-lapse
monitoring and reservoir characterization analysis. Subsurface images produced using these highly accurate models provide
interpreters with a much higher degree of confidence with respect to reservoir delineation and subsequent well planning.
Many areas across the world share a common issue – complex near-surface conditions such as shallow gas anomalies, sediment
carapace, permafrost, volcanic intrusions and paleo-canyons. FWI is well suited to handling these challenges."
Our FWI algorithms honor anything from isotropy to orthorhombic
anisotropy. In FWI, the problem of cycle-skipping occurs when the
difference in arrival time between modeled and observed data is larger
than a half-cycle of the dominant frequency. It can cause the algorithm
to converge on a wrong local solution. We have developed technology
and workflows to mitigate this issue, especially for data with a lack of
low-frequency signal or with a less accurate starting model.
Our latest reflection-based FWI technology allows us to resolve complex geological challenges by utilizing both refraction and reflection data. The addition of reflection information improves the velocity model beyond diving-wave penetration depths, resulting in significantly better ultra-deep images. In areas such as the Gulf of Mexico, reflection-based FWI delivers improvements to salt model accuracy and subsalt imaging.
This FWI example
extracted from our
25,000 km2 BroadSeis™
shows the level of
detail provided for
Broadest bandwidth, best low frequencies deliver accurate models for better decisions. Choose BroadSeis at all stages from exploration to production.
Least-Squares Migration provides images with better balanced illumination, improved signal-to-noise ratio, reduced migration artifacts and more interpretable seismic amplitudes.
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