Full Waveform Inversion

Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI) derives high-resolution velocity models by minimizing the difference between observed and modeled seismic waveforms. It goes beyond refraction and reflection tomography techniques, which use only the travel time kinematics of the seismic data, by using additional information provided by the amplitude and phase of the seismic waveform.

The highly detailed models provided by FWI can be used to resolve complex geological features, as well as aid in identifying potential geohazards. These high-definition models can also be input directly to pore pressure prediction flows, time-lapse monitoring and reservoir characterization analysis. Subsurface images produced using these highly accurate models provide interpreters with a much higher degree of confidence with respect to reservoir delineation and subsequent well planning.

Many areas across the world share a common issue – complex near-surface conditions such as shallow gas anomalies, sediment carapace, permafrost, volcanic intrusions and paleo-canyons. FWI is well suited to handling these challenges."

Anisotropy & cycle skipping

Our FWI algorithms honor anything from isotropy to orthorhombic anisotropy. In FWI, the problem of cycle-skipping occurs when the difference in arrival time between modeled and observed data is larger than a half-cycle of the dominant frequency. It can cause the algorithm to converge on a wrong local solution. We have developed technology and workflows to mitigate this issue, especially for data with a lack of low-frequency signal or with a less accurate starting model.

Reflection-based FWI

Our latest reflection-based FWI technology allows us to resolve complex geological challenges by utilizing both refraction and reflection data. The addition of reflection information improves the velocity model beyond diving-wave penetration depths, resulting in significantly better ultra-deep images. In areas such as the Gulf of Mexico, reflection-based FWI delivers improvements to salt model accuracy and subsalt imaging.


This FWI example extracted from our 25,000 km2 BroadSeis™ multi-client survey offshore Gabon shows the level of detail provided for interpreters.

Orthorhombic full-waveform inversion for imag...

Yi Xie | Bin Zhou | Joe Zhou | Jiangtao Hu | Lei Xu ...
©2017 SEG

Full-waveform inversion for salt: A coming of...

Ping Wang | Zhigang Zhang | Jiawei Mei | Feng Lin | Rongxin Huang
©2019 SEG

High-frequency acoustic land full-waveform in...

Anna Sedova | Gillian Royle | Thibaut Allemand | Gilles Lamb...
©2019 EAGE
Offshore - BroadSeis


Broadest bandwidth, best low frequencies deliver accurate models for better decisions. Choose BroadSeis at all stages from exploration to production.

Subsurface Imaging - Least-Squares Migration

Least-Squares Migration

Least-Squares Migration provides images with better balanced illumination, improved signal-to-noise ratio, reduced migration artifacts and more interpretable seismic amplitudes.

Multi-Client Data - Gabon


Over 25,000km2 PSDM seismic data available as part of a complete geoscience package including regional geological analysis in this prospective area.
Subsurface Imaging


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